আমেরিকার পৃষ্ঠপোষকতায় হত্যাযজ্ঞঃ প্রথম ৯/১১

ঘটনার প্রায় এক দশক। তবে এই পুরো এক দশক ধরে মিডিয়াকে আচ্ছন্ন করে রেখেছে একটি শব্দ, তা হলো ৯-১১। সেই একি মার্কিনী ভাবে ঘটনা/দুর্ঘটনার তারিখ বলার প্রথা চালু হয়েছে বাংলাদেশেও, যেমন বাংলাদেশের মিলিটারি ক্যু-কে ‘১/১১’ হিসেবে আখ্যায়িত করা হয়ে থাকে। তবে এসব আকর্ষণীয় নামের কারনে চাপা পড়ে গেছে ইতিহাসের সর্ব প্রথম ‘৯/১১’।   দক্ষিণ আমেরিকার চিলিতে যুক্তরাষ্টের পৃষ্ঠপোষকতায় সংঘটিত নির্বাচিত প্রেসিডেণ্ট সালবাদোর আইয়েন্দে আর হাজার হাজার চিলিয়ানকে হত্যার নির্মম ইতিহাস সঙ্ঘঠিত হয় ১৯৭৩ সালের ১১ সেপ্টেম্বর। 
চিলির রাজধানী সান্তিয়াগো আর আশেপাশে ঘটা এই ঠাণ্ডা মাথার হত্যাযজ্ঞের মূল পরিকল্পনায় ছিলো তৎকালীন মার্কিন রাষ্ট্রপতি রিচার্ড নিক্সন এবং ড. হেনেরী কিসিঞ্জার আর জল্লাদ হিসেবে তা বাস্তবায়নের দায়িত্ব পালন করেছিলো চিলির সামরিক জেনারেল আউগুস্তো পিনোশে।
কিউবার পথ ধরে দক্ষিন আমেরিকায় মার্কসবাদের অপ্রতিরোধ্য প্রসার কে প্রতিরোধ করতে ১৯৬০ সালেই যুক্তরাষ্ট্র সিআইএ কে প্রয়োজনীয় অর্থ বরাদ্দ দেয়। মার্কসবাদীদের বিপ্লবী অভ্যুত্থান ঠেকাতে দক্ষিন আমেরিকার দুর্নীতিবাজ পুতুল সরকারগুলোকে সিআইএ সামরিক ও কৌশলগত প্রশিক্ষণ দিতে শুরু করে। যার ধারাবাহিকতায় বলিভিয়ায় হত্যা করা হয় বিপ্লবী চে গুয়েভারা কে।
চে’র মৃত্যুর পর চিলির মার্কসবাদী সালবাদোর আইয়েন্দের দিকে নজর দেয় সিআইএ। চে’র মতই আইয়েন্দে পেশায় ছিলেন চিকিৎসক। তবে চে’র মত বিপ্লবের পথে না গিয়ে আইয়েন্দে নির্বাচনের মাধ্যমে রাষ্ট্র ক্ষমতায় যাবার পথকে বেছে নিয়েছিলেন। চিলির সমাজতান্ত্রিক দলের পক্ষ হতে তিনি ১৯৫২, ১৯৫৮ এবং ১৯৬৪ সালে রাষ্ট্রপতি নির্বাচন করেছেন এবং ধীরে ধীরে মার্কসবাদকে সাধারণের মধ্যে জনপ্রিয় করেছেন।
১৯৭০ সালের প্রেসিডেণ্ট নির্বাচনের সময় আইয়েন্দের জয়লাভের সম্ভাবনার কথা জেনে ড. হেনেরী কিসিঞ্জার বলেছিলেন, “I don’t see why we need to stand by and watch a country go communist due to the irresponsibility of its own people.”[জনগণের দায়িত্বহীনতায় একটি কম্যুনিস্ট রাষ্টের জন্ম দেখেও আমাদের (যক্তরাষ্ট্র)  নীরব থাকার কোন মানেই হয় না]।
নির্বাচনে আইয়েন্দে সাম্যবাদী ও দলছুট খ্রিস্টান ডেমোক্র্যাটদের এক কোয়ালিশনের নেতা হিসেবে খুব অল্প ব্যবধানে লাতিন আমেরিকার প্রথম মার্কসবাদী রাষ্ট্রপতি নির্বাচিত হলেন। আইয়েন্দের জয়লাভে নিক্সন এতটাই ক্ষুব্ধ হয়েছিলেন যে তিনি সিআইএ পরিচালক রিচার্ড হেম কে ডেকে নির্দেশ দেন “Make the economy scream [in Chile to] prevent Allende from coming to power or to unseat him” [আইয়েন্দেকে সরাতে কিংবা আবারো তাঁর ক্ষমতায় আসাকে ঠেকাতে চিলির অর্থনীতিকে পঙ্গু করে দাও]।
আইয়েন্দে ক্ষমতায় এসে প্রথমেই চিলির সমস্ত তামার খনি এবং বিদেশীদের (বিশেষ করে মার্কিন) মালিকানাধীন অনেক ব্যবসা ক্ষতিপূরণ ছাড়াই বাজেয়াপ্ত করেন ও এগুলির জাতীয়করণ করলেন। বিদেশ নীতিতে পরিবর্তন এনে কিউবা ও চীনের সাথে বৈদেশিক সম্পর্ক গড়ে তুললেন। দেশের জনগণের মধ্যে অর্থনৈতিক বৈষম্য দূর করার জন্য তিনি দ্রব্যমূল্যের দাম স্থির করে ন্যূনতম বেতন বাড়িয়ে দিলেন।
ভূমিহীনদের সুবিধার জন্য আইয়েন্দে ভূমি-সংস্কার করেন এবং ভূস্বামীদের হাসিয়েন্দা সমবায় ভেঙে দিয়ে সরকারীকরণ করেন। গরিবদের উপকার করতে গিয়ে তিনি চিলির উচ্চবিত্ত ও মধ্যবিত্ত শ্রেণীর কুনজরে পড়েন। এই অসন্তোষ কে কাজে লাগিয়ে সিআইএ তার বিরুদ্ধে ‘ট্রাক-২’ অভ্যুত্থান ঘটানোর চেষ্টা করে। ১০ মিলিয়ন ডলারের এই প্রকল্প শেষ পর্যন্ত সফল হয় নি।
আইয়েন্দের শক্তির মূল উৎস ছিলো দেশের কৃষক-শ্রমিক ও নিম্নবিত্ত জনগন। তাঁরা আইয়েন্দের এই পদক্ষেপগুলিকে স্বাগত জানায় এবং ১৯৭৩ সালের কংগ্রেস নির্বাচনে আইয়েন্দের দলকে ৪৪% ভোট দিয়ে নির্বাচিত করে এই আস্থার প্রতিফলন ঘটায়।
অপারেশন কণ্ডুর
ল্যাতিন আমেরিকা হতে মার্কসবাদকে উচ্ছেদের জন্য সত্তরের দশকের শুরুতে সিআইএ ‘অপারেশন কণ্ডুর’ নামে একটি প্রকল্প হাতে নেয়। এর প্রথম কাজ ছিলো আইয়েন্দে ও তাঁর অনুসারীদের হত্যা করা। পরবর্তীতে এই অপারেশনে হত্যা করা হয় প্রায় ৬০,০০০ ল্যাতিন আমেরিকান মুক্তিকামী মানুষ।
প্রথম ৯/১১
১৯৭৩ সালের ১১ সেপ্টেম্বরে চিলির সামরিক জেনারেল আউগুস্তো পিনোশে মার্কিন গোয়েন্দা সংস্থা সিআইএ-র সহায়তায় অভ্যুত্থান ঘটান। সকাল সাতটায় শুরু হওয়া এই অভ্যুত্থানে নির্মমভাবে হত্যা করা হয় দেশের শীর্ষ মার্কসবাদী নেতাদের। সামরিক বাহিনী রাষ্ট্রপতি প্রাসাদে আক্রমণ করলে সেখানে প্রতিরোধ যুদ্ধ শুরু হয় এবং ৬০ জনকে হত্যা করা হয়। আত্মসমর্পন না করে আইয়েন্দে আত্মহত্যা করেন। যদিও তাঁর অনেক অনুসারীর ধারণা আসলে তাঁকে হত্যা করা হয়।
পরবর্তী কয়েকদিনে হত্যা করা হয় ১,১৮৩ জন নিরীহ মানুষকে। চিলির জাতীয় স্টেডিয়ামে আটক করে নির্যাতন করা হয় ৪০,০০০ মানুষকে। যার মধ্যে নিখোঁজ হয়ে যায় আরো প্রায় ১৭০০ মানুষ। পাশবিক নির্মমতায় দমন করা হয় শান্তিপূর্ন উপায়ে মার্কসবাদ প্রতিষ্ঠার পথ প্রদর্শক সালবাদোর ইসাবেলিনো আইয়েন্দের প্রচেষ্টাকে। পুরো ঘটনা ঘটার পর ড. কিসিঞ্জার প্রেসিডেণ্ট নিক্সনকে জানান, “We didn’t do it. I mean we helped them. [Garbled] created the conditions as great as possible”।
পরিকল্পনা বাস্তবায়নে সিআইএ এতটাই নির্মম ছিল যে, এ বিষয়ে বেশ কিছু তথ্য জেনে যাবার কারণে অভ্যুত্থান চলাকালিন সময়ে কর্তব্যরত মার্কিন সাংবাদিক চার্লস হরম্যানকে পর্যন্ত হত্যা করা হয়। এই হত্যাকাণ্ডের ওপর ১৯৮২ সালে হলিউডে ‘Missing’ নামে একটি মুভি তৈরী করা হয়। সেই মুভিতে চার্লস হরম্যানের হত্যাকে অনুমোদন দেয়া চিলিতে নিযুক্ত মার্কিন রাষ্ট্রদূত ন্যাথানিয়েল ডেভিসের কর্মকাণ্ড প্রকাশ হয়ে পড়লে ডেভিস মুভিটির বিরুদ্ধে মামলা করেন। দীর্ঘ আইনী জটিলতা শেষে ২০০৬ সালে ডেভিস মামলায় পরাজিত হন এবং মুভিটি আবার মুক্তি পায়।

তথ্যসূত্র:
১। ১৯৭৩ সালে চিলিতে সেনা অভ্যুত্থানে মার্কিন সংশ্লিষ্টতার প্রকাশিত দলিল
২। Delight Over Coup Is Evident in Transcripts-The New York Times
৩। ইউ-টিউবে প্রথম ৯/১১
৪। সিআইএর প্রকাশিত দলিল
৫। উইকিপিডিয়ায় ১৯৭৩ এর চিলি অভ্যুত্থান
৬। উইকিপিডিয়ায় অপারেশন কণ্ডুর
৭। মিসিং (১৯৮২)

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