আদিবাসীদের ভূমি থেকে উচ্ছেদ থামছে না

বাংলাদেশের আদিবাসীরা তাঁদের ভূমি থেকে উচ্ছেদ হচ্ছেন৷ অভিযোগ আছে নির্যাতন-নিপীড়নের৷ তাদের নানাভাবে নানা কৌশলে একটি চক্র ভূমির অধিকার থেকে বঞ্চিত করতে চাইছে৷ এদিকে সাংবিধানিকভাবে মেলেনি ‘আদিবাসীর’ স্বীকৃতি৷

    
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বাংলাদেশের সংবিধানে আদিবাসীদের বলা হয়ে ক্ষুদ্র নৃগোষ্ঠী৷ সরকারি হিসেবে মোট জনসংখ্যার ১.২ শতাংশ মানুষ ২৭টি আদিবাসী গোষ্ঠীর৷ বাংলাদেশে সরকার ২২টি ক্ষুদ্র নৃ-গোষ্ঠীকে স্বীকার করে না৷ অন্যদিকে সরকারের তরফ থেকে ২৭টি ক্ষুদ্র নৃ-গোষ্ঠীকে স্বীকার করা হলেও, বাস্তবে দেশের ৪৮ জেলায় ৪৯ টি ক্ষুদ্র নৃ-গোষ্ঠীর বসবাস৷ আর তাদের মোট জনসংখ্যা ৫০ লাখ হলেও, সরকারি হিসেবে ২৫ লাখ৷
অর্থনীতিবিদ অধ্যাপক ড. আবুল বারকাত তাঁর ‘পলিটিক্যাল ইকোনমি অউ আনপিপলিং অউ ইন্ডিজিনাস পিপলস: দ্য কেইস অউ বাংলাদেশ’ শিরোমে একটি গবেষণা গ্রন্থে বলছেন, ‘২৭ বছর আগে পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রামে আদিবাসী মানুষের অনুপাত ছিল ৭৫ শতাংশ৷ এখন তা ৪৭ শতাংশ৷ গত তিন দশক ধরে ওই অঞ্চলে আদিবাসী কমছে আর বঙালিদের সংখ্যা বাড়ছে৷ পাহড়িরা হাড়িয়েছে ভূমি-বনাঞ্চল আর আমদানী করা সেটেলার বাঙালিরা দুর্বৃত্ত আমলা প্রশাসনের যোগসাজশে তা দখল করেছে৷’
তিনি তাঁর গবেষণায় দেখিয়েছেন, গত ৬৪ বছরে সমতলের ১০টি ক্ষুদ্র নৃ-গোষ্ঠীর ২ লাখ ২ হাজার ১৬৪ একর জমি কেড়ে নেয়া হয়েছে, যার দাম প্রায় ১০ হাজার কোটি টাকা৷
অধ্যাপক আবুল বারকাত তাঁর গবেষণায় ক্ষুদ্র নৃ-গোষ্ঠীকে জমিজমা এবং বসত বাড়ি থেকে উচ্ছেদের ১৬টি কৌশলের কথা বলেছেন৷ এইসব কৌশলের মধ্যে রয়েছে – সরকারি বনায়ন, খাস সম্পত্তি রক্ষা, ন্যাশনাল পার্ক বা জাতীয় উদ্যান, টুরিস্ট সেন্টার প্রতিষ্ঠা, ইকো পার্ক স্থাপন, ভূমি জরিপ, বিদ্যুৎ উৎপাদন, শত্রু সম্পত্তি আইন, ভুয়া দলিল, গুজব ছড়িয়ে সংঘাত, দাঙ্গা, জোর জবরদস্তি, ভীতি সৃষ্টি প্রভৃতি৷
আদিবাসী ফোরামের সাধারণ সম্পাদক সঞ্জীব দ্রং ডয়চে ভেলেকে বলেন, ‘‘আদিবাসীরা ক্রমাগতভাবে তাদের ভূমি থেকে উচ্ছেদ হচ্ছে৷ স্থানীয় প্রভাবশালী ছাড়াও সরকার আইন করে আদিবাসীদের ভূমি দখল করে নিচ্ছে৷ আদিবাসীরা ঐতিহাসিকভাবে যেসব ভূমির মালিক, সেখানে তাদের মালিকানা অস্বীকার করা হচ্ছে৷”

‘সরকার আইন করে আদিবাসীদের ভূমি দখল করে নিচ্ছে’

তিনি উদাহরণ দিয়ে বলেন, ‘‘মধুপুরের শালবনে ২৫ হাজার আদিবসী গারো, কোচ, বর্মণ বাস করে৷ দু’বছর আগে সরকার আদিবসীদের সঙ্গে কোনো আলেচনা না করেই ৯ হাজার একরেরও বেশি এলকাকে সংরক্ষিত বনাঞ্চল ঘোষণা করল৷ আদিবসীদের বসতবাড়ি, স্কুল, জমি – সব হয়ে গেল সংরক্ষিত বনাঞ্চল৷ এভাবে সরকার ন্যাশনাল পার্ক করে আদিবাসীদের উচ্ছেদ করে৷ পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রামে হর্টিকালচার টুরিজম, পর্যটনের নামে আাদিবাসীদের জমি দখল করা হয়েছে৷ বান্দরবনে পর্যটন কেন্দ্র বানানো হচ্ছে৷ গাইবন্ধায় আগুন দিয়ে আদিবসীদের উচ্ছেদ করা হয়েছে৷ একইভাবে রাঙামাটির লংগদুতেও বাড়িঘরে আগুন দেয়া হয়৷” সর্বশেষ পর্যটন রিসোর্ট তৈরির নামে বান্দরবানের মারমা পাড়ার সর্বশেষ টিকে থাকা ছয়টি মারমা পরিবারকেও উচ্ছেদ করা হয়েছে৷
আদিবাসীদের উচ্ছেদে ভয়ের পরিবেশ সৃষ্টি করা হয়ে থাকে বাংলাদেশে৷ হুমকি, হত্যা, নির্যাতন ও ধর্ষণের মতো ঘটনা ঘটানো হয়৷ গত সাত মাসে ৩২ জন আদিবাসী নারী ও শিশু যৌন নির্যাতনের শিকার হয়েছেন৷ সঞ্জীব দ্রং বলেন, ‘‘আদিবসীদের নানা মিথ্যা মামলায় জড়িয়ে দেয়া হয়৷ আর তাতেও কাজ না হলে তাদের হুমকি, নির্যাতন, হত্যা এবং নারীদের লাঞ্ছনা করা হয়৷ এর একটাই উদ্দেশ্য৷ তা হলো আদিবাসীদের তাদের ভূমি থেকে উচ্ছেদ করে তা দখল করা৷ পটুয়াখালী, বরগুনা এবং কুয়াকাটা অঞ্চলে ৬০ হাজার রাখাইন ছিল৷ এখন আছে মাত্র ২ হাজার ২০০ জন৷ সাড়ে ৭ কোটি থেকে বাংলাদেশের জনসংখ্যা হলো দ্বিগুণেরও বেশি ১৬ কোটি৷ অথচ রাখাইন কমে গিয়ে এখন তলানিতে৷ এটা কীভাবে সম্ভব!”

‘ভূমি থেকে উচ্ছেদের পর নারীরা এখন নির্যাতনের শিকার’

জাতীয় আদিবাসী পরিষদের সভাপতি রবীন্দ্রনাথ সরেণ ডয়চে ভেলেকে বলেন, ‘‘আদিবাসীদের ভূমি থেকে উচ্ছেদের পর আদিবাসী নারীরা এখন নির্যাতনের শিকার হচ্ছে৷ এ এক ভয়াবহ অবস্থা৷ আদিবাসীদের জতিগত পরিচয় পরিবর্তন করে তাদের জমি জোর করে রেজিস্ট্রি করে নেয়া হচ্ছে৷ রবীন্দ্রনাথ সরেনকে বানানো হচ্ছে রবীন্দ্রনাথ সরকার৷ সংবিধানের ৯৭ অনুচ্ছেদও মানা হচ্ছে না৷ আমাদের দাবি, আদিবাসীদের যেসব জমি থেকে উচ্ছেদ করা হয়েছে সেই জমি তাদের ফেরত দিতে হবে৷”
সঞ্জীব দ্রং বলেন, ‘‘সংবিধানের পঞ্চদশ সংশোধনীর মাধ্যমে আমাদের আদিবাসী পরিচয় মুছে দেয়া হয়েছে৷ আমরা হয়ে গেছি ক্ষুদ্র নৃ-গোষ্ঠী, ক্ষুদ্র জাতিসত্তাবা উপজাতি৷ কিন্তু আমাদের আদিবাসী হিসেবে স্বীকৃতি দিতে হবে৷ এ নিয়ে সরকারের সঙ্গে আমাদের আলোচনা অব্যাহত আছে৷ সরকারকে কেউ ভুল বোঝাচ্ছে বলে আমাদের ধারণা৷ জতিসংঘ আমাদের আদিবাসী হিসেবে স্বীকৃতি দিয়েছে৷ সরকার মনে করে, এই স্বীকৃতি দিলে আমাদের কিছু অধিকারও দিতে হবে৷ আমাদের অধিকার থেকে নাম বদলে দিয়ে বঞ্চিত করার সুযগ নেই৷”
সরকারের নানা উদ্যোগ থাকলেও আদিবাসী সংস্কৃতি, ভাষা হারিয়ে যাচ্ছে৷ অনেক ভাষা বিলুপ্ত হয়েছে৷ কোনোটা আবার বিলুপ্ত হওয়ার পথে৷ রবীন্দ্রনাথ সরেণ বলেন, ‘‘আমাদের আদিবাসী স্বীকৃতি দেয়ার পাশাপাশি আমাদের ভাষা ও সংস্কৃতি রক্ষায় উদ্যোগ নিতে হবে৷” তিনি প্রশ্ন করেন, ‘‘আদিবাসীরা যদি ক্ষুদ্র জাতিগোষ্ঠী হয় তাহলে বৃহত্তম কারা? বঙালিরা? এই বিভেদ ঘোঁচাতে হবে৷”

49 Comments

  1. আপনি না জেনে কথা বলছেন কেন? বিএনপি ও বাম দল গুলো এই কয়বছরে খুব সূক্ষ্ম ভাবে একটা বিষয় প্রতিষ্ঠা করতে চাচ্ছে যে সেনাবাহিনী আদিবাসীদের অত্যাচার করছে, কিন্তু এটা একটা মিথা কথা। সত্যি হলো যে পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম ও সেই এলাকার স্থানীয় সন্ত্রাসী গ্রুপ এসকল কর্মকাণ্ড করে থাকে এবং তার দোষ চাপিয়ে দেয় সরকারের ওপর। এটা একটা অন্যায়। আপনিও একই অন্যায় করছেন

  2. তারা কি বাংলাদেশি না? তাদের কেন আদিবাসি বলতে হবে? আমার এই বিষয়ে ঘোর আপত্তি

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