আদিবাসীদের সামাজিক ভূমি অধিকার এবং বর্তমান চিত্র

বাংলাদেশে ভূমি মালিকানার প্রচলিত আইনের চেয়ে আদিবাসীদের ভূমি মালিকানার ধরণ আলাদা৷ তাঁরা বংশপরম্পরায় ভূমির মালিকানা লাভ করেন৷ সেই মালিকানা সামাজিক ও মৌখিক৷

    
Bangladesch Jhum Kultur (DW/M. Mamun)
সরকারি হিসেবে মোট জনসংখ্যার ১ দশমিক ২ শতাংশ মানুষ ২৭টি আদিবাসী গোষ্ঠীর৷ অর্থনীতিবিদ অধ্যাপক ড. আবুল বারকাত তাঁর গবেষণায় বলেছেন, ‘‘২৭ বছর আগে পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রামে আদিবাসী মানুষের অনুপাত ছিল ৭৫ শতাংশ৷ আর এখন তা ৪৭ শতাংশ৷ গত তিন দশক ধরে ঐ অঞ্চলে আদিবাসী কমছে আর বাঙালিদের সংখ্যা বাড়ছে৷ পাহাড়িরা হারিয়েছে ভূমি-বনাঞ্চল আর আমদানি করা সেটলার বাঙালিরা দুর্বৃত্ত আমলা প্রশাসনের যোগসাজশে তা দখল করেছে৷”
তিনি তাঁর গবেষণায় দেখিয়েছেন যে, গত ৬৪ বছরে সমতলের ১০টি ক্ষুদ্র নৃ-গোষ্ঠীর দুই লাখ দুই হাজার ১৬৪ একর জমি কেড়ে নেয়া হয়েছে, যার দাম প্রায় ১০ হাজার কোটি টাকা৷

‘বংশ পরম্পরায় ভূমির মালিকানা আন্তর্জাতিভাবে স্বীকৃত’

সমতলের আদিবাসীদের ভূমির মালিকানা দেশের প্রচলিত আইনে নির্ধারণ করা হলেও তিন পার্বত্য জেলায় আদিবাসীদের ভূমি মালিকানা সামাজিক৷ ‘সার্বজনীন সম্পদ-সম্পত্তি মালিকানা অধিকার’ নীতিই হলো তাদের ভূমি মালিকানার ভিত্তি৷ ফলে এই মালিকানা বংশ পরম্পরায় মৌখিক৷ তিনটি সার্কেলের আওতায় পার্বত্য পাড়ার হেডম্যান এবং কারবারিরা এর ব্যবস্থাপনা করে থাকেন৷ কিন্তু গত ৩০ বছরে এই পার্বত্য পাড়ার নিয়ন্ত্রণাধীন ভূমির পরিমাণ শতকরা ৫১ ভাগ কমে গেছে৷ আরেক কথায় বলা যায়, পাহাড়িদের সামাজিক মালিকানার অর্ধেকেরও বেশি ভূমি ও ভূসম্পদ হাতছাড়া হয়ে গেছে৷
অধ্যাপক আবুল বারাকাত তাঁর গবেষণায় ক্ষুদ্র নৃ-গোষ্ঠীকে জমিজমা এবং বসতবাড়ি থেকে উচ্ছেদের ১৬টি কৌশলের কথা বলেছেন৷ এইসব কৌশলের মধ্যে রয়েছে সরকারি বনায়ন, খাস সম্পত্তি রক্ষা, ন্যাশনাল পার্ক বা জাতীয় উদ্যান, টুরিস্ট সেন্টার প্রতিষ্ঠা, ইকো পার্ক স্থাপন, ভূমি জরিপ, বিদ্যুৎ উৎপাদন, জোর-জবরদস্তি, ভীতি সৃষ্টি প্রভৃতি৷ তাঁদের রক্ষার নামেই রাজনৈতিক প্রভাবশালী ও ভূমি দস্যুরা তাঁদের উচ্ছেদ করে৷ কয়েকমাস আগে গাইবান্ধার চিনিকল এলাকায় সাঁওতালদের উচ্ছেদে সেইসব রাজনৈতিক নেতারাই নেতৃত্ব দিয়েছেন, যাঁরা কয়েক বছর আগে তাঁদের রক্ষার আন্দোলন শুরু করেছিলেন৷
১৯৫০ সালে বিদ্যুৎ উৎপাদনের জন্য কাপ্তাইয়ে বাঁধ দেওয়ার নামে যেমন ক্ষুদ্র নৃ-গোষ্ঠীকে উচ্ছেদ করা হয়৷ তেমনি মধুপুরে ন্যাশনাল পার্ক করার নামেও ক্ষুদ্র নৃ-গোষ্ঠীকে উচ্ছেদ করা হয়৷ মৌলভীবাজারের মাগুরছড়ায়ও সরকারের পৃষ্ঠপোষকতায় উচ্ছেদের শিকার হয়েছেন তাঁরা৷ ২০০৮ এবং ২০১৪ সালের নির্বাচনে আওয়ামী লীগ ক্ষুদ্র নৃ-গোষ্ঠীর স্বার্থ রক্ষা এবং ভূমি কমিশন গঠনের প্রতিশ্রুতি দিলেও তা রক্ষা করার কোনো তৎপরতা লক্ষ্য করা যাচ্ছে না৷

‘পাহাড়ে আদিবাসীরা যার যতটুকু ভূমি প্রয়োজন ততটুকু নেয়’

যুগ যুগ ধরে আদিবাসীরা পাহাড়ে তাদের নিজস্ব সামাজিক পদ্ধতিতে ভূমি ব্যবহার করত৷ ব্রিটিশ শাসনামলেই পার্বত্য অঞ্চলের জন্য আলাদা ভূমি আইন করা হয়, যা চিটাগাং হিলট্র্যাকটস রেগুলেশন অ্যাক্ট নামে পরিচিত৷ সেই আইনে একই ধরনের স্বীকৃতি দেয়া হয়৷ কিন্তু পাকিস্তান এবং বাংলাদেশ আমলে আদিবাসীরা উচ্ছেদের শিকার হন৷ ভূমির অধিকার বঞ্চিত হতে শুরু করেন৷ পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রামে আদিবাসীদের তিনটি সার্কেল আছে – চাকমা, মং এবং বোমাং৷ চাকমা সার্কেলের প্রধান রাজা দেবাশীষ রায় ডয়চে ভেলেকে বলেন, ‘‘১৯৭১ এবং ১৯৮৯ সালে আইনের পরিবর্তন করে বন্দোবস্ত ব্যবস্থায় পরিবর্তন আনা হয়৷ আদিবাসীদের ভূমি বন্দোবস্তের সুযোগ করে দেয়া হয়, যা হিলট্র্যাক্টস রেগুলেশনের বিরোধী৷ জিয়াউর রহমানের সময় দেশের অন্যান্য জেলার মানুষকে পাহাড়ে জমি বন্দোবস্ত দেয়া হয়৷ ওই সময় অন্য জেলা থেকে সাড়ে চার লাখ মানুষ পাহাড়ে আসে৷”
আদিবাসী ফোরামের সাধারণ সম্পাদক সঞ্জীব দ্রং বলেন,  যেখানে মাত্র শতকরা তিনভাগ বাঙালি ছিল এখন তারা হয়ে গেছে ৫০ ভাগেরও বেশি৷ আমাদের লক্ষ লক্ষ একর জমি বেদখল হয়ে গেছে৷ এখন সেখানে জুম চাষের জমি নিয়ে নেয়া হচ্ছে৷ কাপ্তাই বাধের মাধ্যমে আদিবাসীদের উচ্ছেদ করা হয় ষাটের দশকে৷ এখন সাজেক, নীল গিরি-নীলাচল দখল হয়ে গেছে৷ এখানে পিকনিক স্পট করা হয়েছে এটা করতে পারে না৷”
দেবাশীষ রায় বলেন, ‘‘পাহাড়িদের নিজস্ব হেডম্যান ও কারবারি প্রথার মাধমে মৌখিক ভূমি ব্যবস্থাপনার পাশাপাশি জেলা পরিষদ এবং বিভাগীয় কমিশনারও পার্বত্য ভূমি ব্যবস্থাপনার সঙ্গে জড়িত৷ কিন্তু আইন হলো হেডম্যান ও কারবারিদের অনুমোদন ছাড়া পার্বত্য জেলার ভূমি বন্দোবস্ত দেয়া যাবে না৷ তবে এই আইন মানা হয় না৷ বাণিজ্যিকভাবে এবং প্রভাবশলীরা বন্দোবস্তের নামে পাহাড়ের জমি দখল করছে৷”
সঞ্জীব দ্রং আরো বলেন, ‘‘বংশ পরম্পরায় ভূমির মালিকানা আন্তর্জাতিভাবে স্বীকৃত৷ আদিবাসীদের সামাজিক মালিকানা জাতিসংঘ কর্তৃক স্বীকৃত৷ আঞ্চলিক পরিষদ ও পার্বত্য শান্তি চুক্তিতেও এর স্বীকৃতি রয়েছে৷ কিন্তু মানা হচ্ছে না৷”
তিনি বলেন, ‘‘ভারতের মেঘালয়ের শিলংয়ে ভারতের রাষ্ট্রপতি প্রধানমন্ত্রী চাইলেও এক কাঠা জমি কিনতে পারবেন না৷ মার্কিন প্রেসিডেন্ট চাইলেও নিউ মেক্সিকো বা সিয়াটলে জমি কিনতে পারবেন না৷ এটা আইন৷”

‘‘গত বছর পার্বত্য ভূমি কমিশনের একটি পূর্ণাঙ্গ বৈঠক হয়েছে’’

তিনি আরো জানান, ‘‘কাপ্তাই বাঁধের মাধ্যমে ১১ লাখ আদিবাসীকে উচ্ছেদ করা হয়৷ তাদের ৬০ ভাগ ভূমি পানির নীচে চলে যায়৷ এখন ইকোপার্ক, রিজার্ভ ফরেস্টের নামে আদিবাসীদের বন ও ভূমির অধিকার থেকে বঞ্চিত করা হচ্ছে৷”
জাতীয় আদিবাসী পরিষদের সভাপতি রবীন্দ্রনাথ সরেন ডয়চে ভেলেকে বলেন, ‘‘পাহাড়ে আদিবাসীরা যার যতটুকু ভূমি প্রয়োজন ততটুকু নেয়৷ পরিবারের সদস্য, চাষবাসের ক্ষমতা সব মিলিয়ে হেডম্যানরা তাঁদের জমি দেয়৷ এ নিয়ে তাঁদের মধ্যে কোনো সমস্যা হয়নি কখনোই৷ তাঁর বিনিময়ে বছরে সামান্য খাজনা দেয় রাজাকে৷ তাঁরা মনে করে, তাঁদের পূর্বপুরুষরা বসবাস করে আসছে৷ এই জমি এই বন এই জলার অধিকার তাঁদের৷”
সমতলের আদিবাসীদের জমির মালিকানা প্রচলিত ভূমি রেজিস্ট্রেশন নীতিমালার আওতায় নির্ধারণ করা হয়৷ দলিল, পর্চা, নাম জারি সবই প্রযোজ্য৷ কিন্তু তাঁদেরও কৌশলে উৎখাত করা হচ্ছে৷ জাতীয় আদিবাসী পরিষদের সভাপতি রবীন্দ্রনাথ সরেন বলেন, ‘‘জমির জাল কাগজ-পত্র, গায়ের জোর, ভয় আর প্রতারণার মাধ্যমে তাঁদের উৎখাত করা হচ্ছে৷” তিনি বলেন, সেজন্য আইন আছে৷ কিন্তু সেই আইনে তাঁদের জমি রক্ষা পাচ্ছে না৷” তিনি উদাহরণ দিয়ে আরো বলেন, ‘‘আমার নাম রবীন্দ্রনাথ সরেন৷ আমি সাঁওতাল৷ আমার নাম করা হলো রবীন্দ্রনাথ সরকার৷ ধর্ম হিন্দু৷ এভাবে জাল দলির করে জমি নিয়ে নেয়৷ আদিবাসীরা শিক্ষিত নয়, গরিব৷ ফলে তাঁরা কিছু করতে পারে না৷ আমরা আদালতেও যেতে পারি না৷”
বাংলাদেশে নিরঙ্কুশ দারিদ্র্যের হার ৪৪ ভাগ৷ কিন্তু আদিবাসীদের নিরঙ্কুশ দারিদ্র্যের হার ৭০ শতাংশ৷ ভূমি ও বন থেকে উচ্ছেদের কারণেই তাঁদের এই পরিস্থিতি৷ রাজা দেবাশীষ রায় বলেন, ‘‘গত বছর পার্বত্য ভূমি কমিশনের একটি পূর্ণাঙ্গ বৈঠক হয়েছে৷ এই কমিশন কাজ করতে পারলে পাহাড়ি আদিবাসীদের ভূমির মালিকানা নিয়ে জটিলতা কমবে৷ দেবাশীষ রায় পার্বত্য ভূমি কমিশনের একজন সদস্য৷

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  1. এতো দরদ থাকলে দেশে চইলা আয়, তারপর বুঝামূ মিথ্যা কথা বলার ফলাফল কি হতে পারে

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